显示技术蹭课笔记 | Display Techique Learning Note


配图

蹭课,科普为主。顺便复习一些基础电路知识。
I am not a student of this class but want to listen to the lecture for popularization of science to myself.By the way reviewing some of the basic circuit knowledge.
给这篇文章写英译好辛苦……
It is hard to write English translation for this article.
肖大大图书镇楼!
Uncle Xiao’s book is superior!


2016.5.20 更新 Update

显示技术实验部分 Experimental part

学会了怎么把电路图和实物电路联系起来。学会了就好简单……果然授人以鱼不如授人以渔!
Learnt how to link circuit diagram to the phhysical diagram.It’s easy enough.Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day.Teach him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.
但不敢去测量上万伏的高压……为自身的局限性感到难过。
But I dare not to measure the high pressure of tens of thousands of volts.I feel terrible for my own limitation.

几个名词 Several noums

声表面波滤波器 Surface acoustic wave filter

声表面波滤波器(SAWF,surface acoustic wave filter)是利用石英、铌酸锂、钛酸钡晶体具有压电效应的性质做成的。所谓压电效应,即是当晶体受到机械作用时,将产生与压力成正比的电场的现象。具有压电效应的晶体,在受到电信号的作用时,也会产生弹性形变而发出机械波(声波),即可把电信号转为声信号。由于这种声波只在晶体表面传播,故称为声表面波。
SAWF uses the piezoelectric effect property of quartz,lithium niobate,barium titanate.As for piezoelectric effect,when the crystal is mechanical functioned,it will produce the electric field which is directly proportional to the pressure.Crystal which has the piezoelectric effect,when the electrical signal is added,will generate a elastic deformation and send a mechanical wave(sonic wave),so it converts electrical signal to acoustic signal.It is called surface acoustic wave for this wave only transmit on the crystal surface.

行可变电容 Line variable capacitor

行可变电容

行可变电感 Row variable inductor

行可变电感

中周 Medium cycle transformer

电视中周:电视机里的中周标准称呼是中频变压器。
The standard name is medium cycle transformer.
中周

电路图上,三极管外带虚线的圆圈是指带散热的三极管,同时接地表屏蔽。
On the circuit diagram,the dotted line with the circle triode refers to the triode with heat pipe,which is at earth potential to shield.

实验现场

电路图 故障示教板 实验 (不配四张图,强迫症不要打我哟~)

2016.5.17 更新 Update
大部分资料来自维基百科。
Most of the information comes from Wikipedia.

平板显示器 Flat panel display

简介 Brief introduction

平板屏幕包含多种科技,使显示器(video display)比传统电视机(traditional television)或显示器(通常由阴极射线管制成)更加轻薄,厚度通常小于4英寸(100 mm)。
Flat panel display includes many technologies,which makes video display lighter than traditional television or display(usually made of cathode ray tube),and thickness is usually less than 4 inches.

种类 Type

DLP (数位光处理) Digital light processing
等离子显示器 Plasma panel display
液晶显示器(LCDs) Liquid crystal display
薄膜晶体管液晶显示器(TFT-LCDs) Thin film transistor liquid crystal display
有机发光二极管显示器(OLEDs) Organic light emitting diode display
发光二极管显示器(LED) Light-emitting diode display
电致发光显示器(ELDs) Electroluminescent display
表面传导电子发射显示器(SEDs) Surface conduction electron emission display
场发射显示器(FEDs)( 纳米-发射显示器(NEDs)) Field emission display

名字多么洋气~
The names has foreign flavour~

这张图有点意思~
This picture is kind of interesting~
显示器

CRT显示器 CRT display

简介 Brief introduction

阴极射线管(Cathode ray tube,缩写:CRT,又称“显像管”、布劳恩管)是一种用于显示系统的物理仪器,曾广泛应用于示波器、电视机和显示器上。它是利用阴极电子枪发射电子,在阳极高压的作用下,射向萤光屏,使萤光粉发光,同时电子束在偏转磁场的作用下,作上下左右的移动来达到扫描的目的。早期的阴极射线管仅能显示光线的强弱,展现黑白画面。而彩色阴极射线管具有红、绿色和蓝色三支电子枪,三支电子枪同时发射电子打在屏幕玻璃上磷化物上来显示颜色。
由于它笨重、耗电且较占空间,2000年代起几乎被轻巧、省电且省空间的液晶显示器取代。阴极射线管的市场剩下极重视色彩表现及低温环境下等特殊用途。
Cathode ray tube,is a physical instrument which uses to display system.It used to be applied to oscilloscope,TV and display.It uses the cathode electron gun for electron emission.Under the action of anode high voltage,it emits to the screen,which makes powder luminesce.At the same time, the electron beam moves up and down to reach the purpose of scanning by the action of the deflection magnetic field.Early cathode ray tube can only show the intensity of light,and to show black and white picture.Color cathode ray tube have red, green and blue electron guns, and this three electron guns emit electrons to hit the glass screen’s phosphides to show color.
Because of its bulky, power consumption and space waste,light, power saving and space saving LCD monitor was used in the 2000s instead.A cathode ray tube market left pole attached color performance and low temperature environment and other special purposes.

CRT在高精尖领域仍扮演着重要角色。
CRT still plays an important role in the high-tech field.

液晶显示器 liquid-crystal display

简介 Brief introduction

液晶显示器(英语:liquid-crystal display,缩写:LCD)为平面薄型的显示设备,由一定数量的彩色或黑白像素组成,放置于光源或者反射面前方。液晶显示器功耗低,因此倍受工程师青睐,适用于使用电池的电子设备。
Liquid-crystal display is the flat panel display device,which consists of a number of color or black and white pixels,and place in the light source or in front of the reflecting surface.

显示原理 Revelation principle

在不加电压下,光线会沿着液晶分子的间隙前进而转折90度,所以光可通过。但加入电压后,光顺着液晶分子的间隙直线前进,因此光被滤光板所阻隔。(让我想到偏振……)
液晶是具有流动特性的物质,所以只需外加很微小的力量即可使液晶分子运动,以最常见普遍的向列型液晶为例,液晶分子可轻易的借着电场作用使得液晶分子转向,由于液晶的光轴与其分子轴相当一致,故可借此产生光学效果,而当加于液晶的电场移除消失时,液晶将借着其本身的弹性及黏性,液晶分子将十分迅速的恢复原来未加电场前的状态。
Without voltage, the light will move along the gap between the liquid crystal molecules and turn 90 degrees, so the light can pass.But after the voltage is added,light goes along the liquid crystal molecules of the gap straight forward,so the light is blocked by the filter board. (Let me think of polarization.)

等离子显示器 Plasma Display Panel

简介 Brief introduction

等离子显示器(Plasma Display Panel)又称为电浆显示屏,是一种平面显示屏幕,光线由两块玻璃之间的离子,射向磷质而发出。与液晶显示器不同,放出的气体并无水银成分,而是使用惰性气体氖及氙混合而成,这种气体是无害气体。
等离子显示器甚为光亮(1000 lx或以上),可显示更多种颜色,也可制造出较大面积的显示屏,最大对角可达381厘米(150吋)。等离子显示屏的对比度亦高,可制造出全黑效果,对观看电影尤其适合。显示屏厚度只有6厘米,连同其他电路板,厚度亦只有10厘米。
Plasma display panel is a flat display screen.Light is emitted to phosphorous by the ion between the two classes.Unlike liquid crystal display,the gas released has no mercury,it mixed inert gas such as neon,xenon and so on,which are harmless.
The plasma display is very bright (1000 LX or above),and it can show more colors,it also can be made big screen,which the maximum diagonal up to 381 cm (150 inches).The contrast is high, and it can create a full black effect,especially suitable for watching movies.The thickness of screen is only 6 cm,combined with other circuit boards, the thickness is only 10 cm.

原理 Principle

等离子的发光原理是在真空玻璃管中注入惰性气体或水银蒸气,加电压之后,使气体产生等离子效应,放出紫外线,激发荧光粉而产生可见光,利用激发时间的长短来产生不同的亮度。等离子显示器中,每一个像素都是三个不同颜色(三原色)的等离子发光体所产生的。由于它是每个独立的发光体在同一时间一次点亮的,所以特别清晰鲜明。等离子显示器的使用寿命约5~6万个小时。随着使用的时间的增加,其亮度会衰退。
The principle of plasma luminescence is to inject inert gas or mercury vapor into a vacuum glass tube.After the voltage is added, the gas is produced by the plasma effect, the ultraviolet ray is emitted, and the fluorescent powder is excited to generate visible light, and the excitation time is used to generate different brightness.In the plasma display, each pixel has three different colors (RGB) of the plasma generated by the luminous body.Since each individual light body is litted at the same time, so it is clear and bright.The service life of the plasma display is about 5~6 ten thousand hours. With the increase of the use of time, the brightness of the plasma display will decline.

【区别】等离子显示器并不是液晶显示器。后者的显示器虽然也很轻薄,但是用的技术却是大不相同。液晶显示器通常会使用一到两个大型萤光灯或是LED当作其背光源,在背光源上面的液晶面板则是利用遮罩的原理让显示器显示出不同颜色。
【Difference】Plasma display is not liquid crystal display.Although the latter is also very thin,the technology is different.Liquid crystal display usually use one or two large fluorescent lamp or LED as the backlight,above the backlight to the LCD panel using mask principle to show different colors.

云电视 Cloud TV

简介 Brief introduciton

云电视是应用云计算、云存储技术的电视产品,是云设备的一种。通俗地讲,就是用户不需要单独再为自家的电视配备所有互联网功能或内容,将电视连上网络,就可以随时从外界调取自己需要的资源或信息,比如说,可以在云电视里安装使用各种即时通讯软件,在看电视的同时,进行社交、办公等等。
Cloud TV,which is the application of cloud computing and cloud storage technology,is a kind of cloud devices.Generally speaking,users do not need a separate device for their own television equipped with all Internet function or information.After the TV is connected to the network,you can get what you want at any times.For example, you can install and use a variety of instant messaging software, while watching TV at the same time, social, office and so on.

3D显示器 3D display

简介 Brief introduciton

传统的3D电影在荧幕上有两组图像(来源于在拍摄时的互成角度的两台摄影机),观众必须戴上偏光镜才能消除重影(让一只眼只接受一组图像),形成视差(parallax),产生立体感。利用自动立体显示(AutoSterocopic)技术,即所谓的“真3D技术”,你就不用戴上眼镜来观看立体影像了。这种技术利用所谓的“视差栅栏”,使两只眼睛分别接受不同的图像,来形成立体效果。
平面显示器要形成立体感的影象,必须至少提供两组相位不同的图像。其中,快门式3D技术和不闪式3D技术是如今显示器中最常使用的两种。
The traditional 3D movie has two sets of images on the screen (come from two cameras that are placed in angle difference),so viewers have to put on a polarizing lens to eliminate the ghost(so that a eye only accept a set of images), and form a parallax to generate a sense of three-dimensional.The use of automatic three-dimensional display (AutoSterocopic) technology, that is, the so-called “true 3D technology”, you do not have to wear glasses to watch the stereo image.This technology uses the so-called “parallax barrier”, so that the two eyes receive different images to form a three-dimensional effect.

OLED显示器 OLED display

简介 Brief introduction

OLED
有机发光二极管又称为有机电激光显示(Organic Light-Emitting Diode,OLED)。OLED显示技术具有自发光的特性,采用非常薄的有机材料涂层和玻璃基板,当有电流通过时,这些有机材料就会发光,而且OLED显示屏幕可视角度大,并且能够节省电能。
对于有机电激发光器件,我们可按发光材料将其分为两种: 小分子OLED和高分子OLED(也可称为PLED)。它们的差异主要表现在器件的制备工艺不同:小分子器件主要采用真空热蒸发工艺,高分子器件则采用旋转涂覆或喷墨工艺。
有机电激发光二极管由于同时具备自发光,不需背光源、对比度高、厚度薄、视角广、反应速度快、可用于挠曲性面板、使用温度范围广、构造及制程较简单等优异之特性,被认为是下一代的平面显示器新兴应用技术。
Organic Light-Emitting Diode has the characteristic of self luminescence,which uses a thin organic material coating and glass substrate.When the current pass,these material will light.Also,OLED display screen viewing angle is big, and it can save electric energy.

发光原理 Principle of luminescence

OLED发光的颜色取决于有机发光层的材料,故厂商可由改变发光层的材料而得到所需之颜色。有源阵列有机发光显示屏具有内置的电子电路系统,因此每个像素都由一个对应的电路独立驱动。OLED具备有构造简单、自发光不需背光源、对比度高、厚度薄、视角广、反应速度快、可用于挠曲性面板、使用温度范围广等优点,技术提供了浏览照片和视频的最佳方式而且对相机的设计造成的限制较少。
The color of the OLED depends on the material of the organic light emitting layer, so the manufacturer can obtain the required color by changing the material of the light emitting layer.The active array organic light emitting display screen has a built-in electronic circuit system, so each pixel is driven by a corresponding circuit.The OLED has the advantages of simple structure, no need of back light source, high contrast, thin thickness, wide viewing angle, quick reaction speed, and can be used for the flexible panel and wide temperature range,and technology offers the best way to view photos and videos and to little limit to the design of the camera.

户外大屏幕显示器 Outside big screen display

这个范围就有点大啊……
This range is broad~
主要说来,CRT、LCD、DLP、LCOS、GLV用的较多。
Generally speaking,CRT、LCD、DLP、LCOS、GLV are used a lot.

2016.3.17更新 update

记忆比较深的知识 Knowledge deeply remember

1.白光透过棱镜分为紫、蓝、青、绿、黄、橙、红。波长依次减少。
White light through the prism is divided into purple, blue, green, green, yellow, orange, red.The wavelength is reduced in turn.

2.绝对黑体是指既不反射也不透射,完全吸收入射辐射的物体。(黑洞……)
The absolute black body is an object that absorbsthe incident radiation,neither reflected nor transmitted.(black hole~)

3.色温是表示光源光色的一种尺度。不是光源实际温度!只是一种光谱特性参量!
Color is a representation of the actual temperature scale.Not real temperature!Just a Spectral characteristic parameter!
例:电视屏幕是室温20℃(300K左右),但显像管显示的白颜色对应的是太阳光的那种白,那么色温是4874K!不要说温度有那么高……否则电视早就烧成灰了……
For example,the temperature of the TV screen is 20 ℃(about 200K),but the white color is corresponding to the white sunlight,which color temperature is 4874K!Never to say it~if it is so hot,your TV is firing ash already.

4.人眼对绿色最敏感!从光谱光效率图看出……所以红绿灯用绿色,显眼啊。
Our eyes is sensitive to green!You can see it in spectral optical efficiency diagram.So this is why traffic light uses green color.

5.正好使人感到不闪烁的刷新频率称为临界闪烁频率。为45.8HZ。只要高于它,人眼就觉得不闪。
Make people feel the refresh rate does not flicker is called the critical flicker frequency,which is 45.8HZ.Only over it,we feel comfortable.
所谓市面上的不闪的电视,就是频率稍高一些的电视,如70HZ。因为部分人群的人眼敏感度较高,所以50HZ也许还是感觉到闪烁,这类人群需要不闪电视。但普通人并不需要。
The so-called “not flash television” in the market is a slightly higher frequency of television,70HZ,for instance.Because some people are more sensitive to it, they need “not flash TV”.But it isn’t needed in common.

6.没必要追求4K的分辨率指标。人眼分辨力有限,所谓分辨,是指人眼能看清的扫描的两行。(美国比中国的扫描行数还低来着……)人眼极限就只能看清大约1K左右(这样说来1080P最好咯),高于这个指标人眼就分不清两行了,所以该指标更高便显得意义不大。4K代表我们有能力做到这么清晰,但日常我们是否需要,则并不见得。所以,往往并不需要追求最高的指标,够用就好。(买电脑一个理)
It’s not necessary to persuit 4K resolution index for human eye resolution is limited.The resolution is the line we can see clearly.(The index in America is lower than that of China)Our eye resolution limit is to see about 1k(1080P maybe the best).If the index higher than this can not we distinguish the lines,so the higher index seems little meaning.4K means we have the ability to do it,but we don’t need it in daily life.Therefore,is not as high index as possible,but enough is alright(Buy a computer is the same way).

7.看电视最佳距离:电视频幕高度的4倍。(我回家特地量了一下距离……)
The best distance to watch TV is four times the height of the TV screen.(I measure the size at home specifically~)

8.CRT显像管上加了上万伏高压,所以开启和关闭电视时常有静电。(我小时候还特喜欢那种有点漂浮的感觉……)
修电视技巧get:如果开机关机时仍能感觉到静电,那么说明显像管是好的!(来自我们修了三千台电视的super肖老师语录……哦……少碰静电,毕竟几万伏呢……小心白血病……)
CRT picture tube is added tens of thousands of volts,so you can feel the static electricity when open or close power supply.(I like the floating feel when I was a child~)
KEY TO REPAIR TVIf you can feel the static electricity when open or close power supply,it is obvious that the picture tube is well.(From our super Mr.Xiao’s quotationswell,do not touch the static electricity as little as possible.Pay attention to leukemia,it is tens of thousands of volts after all)

9.彩色三要素:亮度、色调、色饱和度。色调与色饱和度合称为色度。
Three elements in color,brightness, tinge, color saturation.Tinge and color saturation are called as chromaticity.

10.三基色原理 The principle of three primary colors
(1)所有颜色可以由这三种基色按比例混合得到。(合成性)
(1)All colors can be made from the three primary colors mixed in proportion (synthetic).
(2)任意一种彩色可分解为三种基色。(分解性)
(2)Any color can be decomposed into three primary colors (decomposition).
(3)混合的亮度等于各基色亮度之和。(叠加性)
(3)The mixed brightness is equal to all primary colors.(addition).
(4)混合比例决定色调和色饱和度。(色度决定性)
(4)The mix proportions determine tinge and color saturation.(chromaticity determination)

11.三基色 Three primary colors
R、G、B.
记得小时候还学了个颜料的三原色……于是百度一下:红、黄、青
Always remember that there exists primary colors of pigment~so I search it.It is red,yellow and cyan.
上图左侧为色光三原色,右侧为美术三原色

12.一个公式(亮度方程) A fomula
Y=0.30R+0.59G+0.11B
例:1R+2G+2B=浅青(light cyan)
Why?
∵1R+1G+1B=白(white)
1G+1B=青(cyan)
白+青=浅青(white+cyan=light cyan)
这个算法莫名想笑……
This idea makes me inexplicably laugh~

13.互补色:加起来为白色的两种颜色。
Complementary colors,the twocolors mixed up in white color.

14.15625!15625!15625!重要的数字说三遍!Important number should be repeated three times!
行扫描的频率……听到这个数字要很快的反应过来……就像3.1415926一样……
正程52us,逆程12us,全程64us,即行扫描周期。
我国现行广播电视标准规定:帧数为25HZ,一帧图像分625行传送。所以行扫描频率25X625=15625HZ……就是这样来的……
It is line scan frequency~everyone of us should reflect on the meaning as 3.1415926~
Positive trace is 52us,negative trace is 12us,the whole trace is 64us,and it is just the line scan cycle.
The existing provisions of broadcast standards in China,frames is 25HZ,and an image is divided into 625 transmission line.So,the line scan frequency is 25X625=15625HZ,that’s is.

15.对比度 Contrast
我之前对这个的定义确实不清楚的说……就连PS上的对比度也是怎么看着舒服怎么调……
对比度,通俗的讲,就是,实际的蓝天和白云的颜色,哦,是这么蓝和这么白,10000:100好了,反映到电视上,还是那么蓝和那么白!就100:1好了……让我想到比例尺。还是原来的配方,还是熟悉的味道!
I didn’t get it clear before,and when I used PS,the contrast is adjusted to the degree that a image how to make me comfortable.Contrast, popular speaking, that is, the actual blue sky and white clouds of color,the component of blue and white is 10000:100,for example,which reflect to TV is 100:1,just like a scale.The original formula and the similar taste!

16.黑白全电视信号特指视频信号。
Black and white television signal refers to the video signal.

17.基色信号-亮度信号=色差信号
Primary signal - luminance signal = color difference signal

18.绿色幅值小,易受干扰,一般传送红、蓝信号。
green has small amplitude,and it is vulnerable to be interfered,it transfers red and blue signal in general.

19.白!黄!青!绿!紫!红!蓝!黑!
白!黄!青!绿!紫!红!蓝!黑!
白!黄!青!绿!紫!红!蓝!黑!
WHITE!YELLOW!CYAN!GREEN!PURPLE!RED!BLUE!BLACK!
标准彩条测试信号。常识背背背!
It is the standard color test signal.We should recite it as common sense.

20.一个记住的电路 A curcuit to remember
亮度调节电路和对比度调节电路
放大电路……如此的熟悉……
So familiar with it.
Rw1滑动调节对比度,Rw2滑动调节亮度!
Rw1 to adjust contrast,and Rw2 to adjust brightness!
感谢无私的好友把她上学期的书借给了我!
Thanks my selfless friend for sending her books to me!

21.指标如果要做到最顶级首选CRT。为什么我们现在都用薄的液晶啊什么的,因为日常使用不需要很高的指标,并且方便使用。
If you want to achieve the top indicators,CRT is preferred.You may ask why we use today is liquid crystal,the reason is Top indicators are not needed in daily use,and it is convinient.

22.阻尼式行输出级典型电路
铅笔写的是我的笔记,乱max……
The writing is my note,you can ignore it~
几个专有名词要知道:阻尼二极管、逆程电容、校正电容、行输出管(行管)、行输出变压器(高压包)、行推动变压器
Several professional noums,Damping diode, reverse pass capacitor, correction capacitor, line output tube (line tube), line output transformer (high voltage package), line drive transformer.
扩展:硅堆、桥堆
Extension: silicon stack, bridge

段子或注意的地方 Something fun or details (It may lost its fun when translated into English)

1.“B光源(色温4874K)近似为中午太阳光的光谱。”类似说法都不够准确,但经典教材上往往都采取这样模糊的说法。

2.用点燃的报纸烘烤灯丝……是为了激发电子发射。有个问题是灯坏了还是什么的,总之就是不行→_→因为激发不了电子发射。(写此文时突然短路……)

3.有个单位叫熙提……它的缩写………………自行百度或查书吧。(保持优雅)

4.隔壁的王叔叔……

5.南京的声音优雅的车站播音员……强调音色的问题……

6.列宁……(原名弗拉基米尔·伊里奇·乌里扬诺夫)(我竟然还百度了一下……)

7.小日本……

偏题了……段子很多就不说了……注意的问题是重点!咳咳~


回看本文…………简直就是帮他们要考试的勾了一遍重点(除了一些公式和计算……)我真是大写的可爱啊!啊。。。
I AM CUTE~
P.S.不吹不黑 上课就要像这样愉悦才是好的课堂 快乐学习不是梦~
Pleasant classroom atmosphere is a excellent class.Happy learning is not a dream.
真是一趟愉快的蹭课之旅~
It was a pleasant trip to the class.
感谢老师 感谢校园 感谢这个和平的时代
thanks for the teacher,thanks for the campus,thanks for this peaceful time.


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The article has been viewed times.Thank you for your visit!

文章目录
  1. 1. 显示技术实验部分 Experimental part
  2. 2. 几个名词 Several noums
    1. 2.1. 声表面波滤波器 Surface acoustic wave filter
    2. 2.2. 行可变电容 Line variable capacitor
    3. 2.3. 行可变电感 Row variable inductor
    4. 2.4. 中周 Medium cycle transformer
  3. 3. 实验现场
  4. 4. 平板显示器 Flat panel display
    1. 4.1. 简介 Brief introduction
    2. 4.2. 种类 Type
  5. 5. CRT显示器 CRT display
    1. 5.1. 简介 Brief introduction
  6. 6. 液晶显示器 liquid-crystal display
    1. 6.1. 简介 Brief introduction
    2. 6.2. 显示原理 Revelation principle
  7. 7. 等离子显示器 Plasma Display Panel
    1. 7.1. 简介 Brief introduction
    2. 7.2. 原理 Principle
  8. 8. 云电视 Cloud TV
    1. 8.1. 简介 Brief introduciton
  9. 9. 3D显示器 3D display
    1. 9.1. 简介 Brief introduciton
  10. 10. OLED显示器 OLED display
    1. 10.1. 简介 Brief introduction
    2. 10.2. 发光原理 Principle of luminescence
  11. 11. 户外大屏幕显示器 Outside big screen display
  12. 12. 记忆比较深的知识 Knowledge deeply remember
  13. 13. 段子或注意的地方 Something fun or details (It may lost its fun when translated into English)
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